originated in central Asia south of the Black and Caspian seas
important food source for the Stone Age hunter-gathers
planting a vineyard and drinking too much win mentioned in the bible
Columbus took grapevines to the Americas
until 1860 European vines were relatively disease free then the phylloxera vine disease caught hold carried by the insect Phylloxera vastatrix (1800s) the american cross pollinated stock was resistant . European vines were grafted onto this stock saving the wine industry.
control excess foliage and good winter pruning will give the developing bunches access to the sun
soil is friable and well drained with high limestone content.
like good air movement.but not chill drafts and cold winds\north facing spot is ideal
plenty of sunshine
hot summers and wet winters
copper can be used to control fungus/
vines need a framework
new growth is fragile and eaily broken.
stick to two or three main leaders as you train the new vine.
prune long stems back to two or three shoots from the leader.
grapes fruit on current sdeasons growth
prune to allow in light and air
use bird netting to prtect vines .
Winter/Early Spring- Plant, prune back to three good buds.
First summer – select stongest shoot and train upright, remove other shoots
Second winter – Cut back to three healthy buds on new growth
Summer – support new shoots that grow up. Remove growth from lower down main stem
Third winter – bend last shoot at end and tie down to wire creating a T shape. Cut ends back to pencil thickness. Cut out any weak or spindly shoots
Summer – Train new growth as before into Y
Following winters – Prune back previous seasons shoots. Remove weak shoots
New growth carries fruit
Have been grown/cultivated since 3500 BC.
Like a hot summer and cool, wet winter. North facing sites are best. Do not like strong winds but need air movement. Like plenty of calcium – add lime or crushed egg shells. Good drainage is essential.
Try to maintain 4-6 good strong leaders
Grapes fruit on the current seasons growth
When fruit is set – prune back any leaves that shade the fruit
Pests – birds (bird netting)
Wasps – only travel about 200m from nests so find the nest
Good grapes for home. Albany Surprise, Himrod, Iono, Kyoho, Niagara, Steuben
|Albany Surprise||Black||Mid-March – April||Sweet flavour. Medium to large fruit. Disease resistant.|
|Autumn Muscat||Green-Gold||March – April||Sweet and spicy muscatel flavour. Good for making dessert wine.|
|Black Hamburg||Blue-Black||March-April||Sweet muscatel flavour.|
|Buffalo||Red-black||April-May||Tender and juicy green flesh. Disease resistant.|
|Canadice||Red||Mid-March – Early April||Seedless. Delicate flavour. Disease resistant.|
|Cardinal||Dark Red||February – March||Sweet. Great for making Raisins|
|Himrod||Green||February||Seedless. Honey flavour.|
|Iona||Pink||March – April||Sweet. Hardy.|
|Italia||Golden Yellow||Mid-March – Early April||Delicate musky flavour. Vigorous.|
|Lakemont||Green||March – Early April||Seedless. Crisp and Sweet. Vigorous.|
|Niagara||Green||Late February – Mid-March||Mildly sweet. Very Hardy.|
|Schuyler||Black||Late February – Mid-March||Sweet with currant flavour. Disease resistant.|
|Steuben||Red-Black||March – April||Sweet. Easy to grow. Disease resistant|
|Thompson Seedless||Green-Gold||April-May||Sweet. Large bunches of small grapes.|